ASD symptoms in adults with ADHD: a preliminary study using the ADOS-2.
Hayashi W, Hanawa Y, Yuriko I, Aoyagi K, Saga N, Nakamura D, Iwanami A.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2021 Mar 22.
Commentary* by Dr. Margaret Weiss: Growing clinical awareness of ADHD in ASD and ASD in ADHD populations is now moving into adult psychiatry.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been regarded as disparate and mutually exclusive to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV.
However, this idea has become obsolete due to a growing body of evidence suggesting numerous phenotypic and genetic similarities between ADHD and ASD. ASD symptoms or autistic traits in individuals with ADHD have been examined; however, most studies were conducted on children and relied on self- or parent- reports. ASD symptoms assessed with more direct, objective measures, such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) in adults with ADHD, remain understudied.
In the present study, we used the ADOS-2 to evaluate ASD symptoms in adults with ADHD who were not clinically diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six adults (mean age 33.9 years, 35 males, intelligence quotient ≥ 85), who were diagnosed with ADHD based on the DSM-5 criteria, completed Module 4 of the ADOS-2. Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III were also administered to assess self-rated ASD symptoms, ADHD symptoms, and intelligence, respectively.
Overall, 23.3% of participants met the ASD diagnostic classification on the ADOS-2. Social reciprocal interaction scores tended to be higher, while restricted and repetitive behavior scores were low. The scoring patterns and possible overlapping and differing phenotypic characteristics of ADHD and ASD are discussed.
* Abstracts are selected for their clinical relevance by Dr. Margaret Weiss, Director of Clinical Research, Child Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard University. Her commentary reflects her own opinion. It is not approved or necessarily representative of the CADDRA board.