The relationship between chronotype and obesity in children and adolescent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Türkoğlu S, Çetin FH.
Chronobiol Int. 2019 Jun 10:1-10.
Commentary* by Dr. Margaret Weiss: The relationship between eveningness and obesity, morningness and normal weight is clinically helpful in allowing clinicians to identify how the circadian clock impacts other aspects of self-regulation.
Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity, but the relationship between these two problems is not clear. Chronotype preferences may be one of the possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether chronotype preferences are a mechanism linking ADHD symptoms to obesity in children and adolescents.
This cross-sectional study included 110 drug-naive children and adolescents aged 7-17 years with ADHD. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used to diagnose ADHD or to exclude psychiatric comorbidity. The Conners’ Parents Rating Scale-Revised Short Version (CPRS-RS) and Children’s Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ) were used to assess the severity of ADHD symptoms and chronotype preferences.
Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified according to national age- and gender-specific reference values. The participants were divided into three groups as normal weight (<85%, n = 38), overweight (85%-95%, n = 30) and obesity (>95%, n = 42) according to their BMI percentile. There were statistically significant differences between the three groups in terms of chronotype preference (p = .000). Morningness preference was 86.84% in the normal BMI group and 26.19% in the obese BMI group. Eveningness preference was 7.89% in the normal BMI group and 61.90% in the obese BMI group.
There was a correlation between the BMI percentile scores and the morningness/eveningness scale (M/E) scores. Moreover, there was a correlation between the BMI percentile scores and the oppositional and ADHD index scores. According to logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of having evening type for obesity was 5.66 and the odds ratio of having morning type for normal weight was 13.03. Independently from ADHD symptoms, eveningness was directly related to obesity and morningness was directly related to normal weight. Prospective studies should be performed to better understand the relationship between ADHD, overweight/obesity and chronotype.
* Abstracts are selected for their clinical relevance by Dr. Margaret Weiss, Director of Clinical Research, Child Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard University. Her commentary reflects her own opinion, is not approved, or necessarily representative, of the opinion of the CADDRA board.